Why McDonald’s, Sweetgreen, and others are eliminating eating rooms and testing “digital kitchens”


There was a time when your native McDonald’s was the best spot for a 6-year-old’s birthday celebration. Its PlayPlaces had ball pits and slides the place kids might spend hours, post-Completely happy Meal.

McDonald’s launched PlayPlaces within the Nineteen Seventies in an effort to construct model loyalty in kids by emphasizing a family-friendly setting. In the present day, you’d be hard-pressed to search out one. That’s not simply attributable to security and well being considerations (ball pits are recognized to be bacterial cesspits). Individuals simply aren’t hanging out at quick meals joints the way in which they used to.

By the top of 2021, dine-in visits to quick meals chains had fallen to simply 14 p.c of restaurant visitors, in comparison with 28 p.c pre-pandemic, based on the market analysis agency NPD Group. In the case of burgers and fries, persons are more and more scarfing them down of their properties, at their places of work, of their vehicles — anyplace, actually, however within the restaurant.

Now, McDonald’s and different quick meals and quick informal giants are betting on the “digital kitchen” — modern, compact shops that harness automation and digitalization to have diners ordering by means of cellular apps or digital kiosks — to get diners out and in in file time. In the meantime, chains are “demolishing” their eating rooms, or shrinking them, with the intention to meet the demand of drive-thru and digital ordering, Steven Baker, an architect at Harrison French and Associates who works on quick meals restaurant design and growth, wrote in an article final 12 months. For McDonald’s, Sweetgreen, and others, decreasing seating means chains can open smaller shops, saving on costly actual property, particularly in city areas.

The massive transformation going down inside eating places additionally threatens to alter how the business appears to be like at labor. In April, McDonald’s introduced a whole lot of layoffs in its company places of work as half of a bigger technique to open new places whereas investing extra into digital, supply, and drive-thru. And for all quick meals and quick informal eating places, whether or not it’s third-party supply apps, automated kiosks, and even meals supply by drone, the glittering promise of tech is the flexibility to dump to machines increasingly of the duties carried out by folks paid an hourly wage.

Final 12 months, 85 p.c of quick meals restaurant orders have been to-go, based on knowledge from NPD. Drive-thrus are busier than ever, with roughly three-quarters of orders being positioned at a drive-thru. Foodservice consulting agency Technomic discovered that 73 p.c of all orders at limited-service eating places (locations the place you pay prematurely and don’t sometimes have desk service, together with each quick meals and quick informal eating places) have been both carryout or supply within the first half of 2022.

McDonald’s has responded to the shift by opening a new eating room-less idea restaurant in Fort Value, Texas, designed round digital orders and extra environment friendly pickups. Sweetgreen has additionally launched a number of places with out seating, together with its first digital-order-only, pick-up-only location in DC in late 2022; it’s going to open two totally automated eating places in 2023. Chipotle, too, has been dabbling with smaller, digital kitchens providing solely pick-up or drive-thru, whereas Panera Bread, a sandwich-serving staple with cubicles and tables galore within the suburbs, is opening smaller shops with much less seating in city areas, in addition to to-go-only shops. Digital gross sales now account for half of its complete system gross sales, based on the corporate, and a spokesperson informed Vox in an electronic mail that the corporate is “redefining its eating expertise to serve in the present day’s visitor in an more and more off-premise world.”

Burger King, KFC, Wingstop, the checklist goes on. At IHOP’s nascent Flip’d places, all of the meals is packaged to go, and there’s restricted seating — the trendy, city evolution of a series well-known for being a drunken late-night refuge.

Even Starbucks — the chain that has lengthy billed itself as an inviting hangout, engineered to all the time odor like freshly roasted espresso — is leaning into takeout. Although its shops decreased seating at first because of the coronavirus, some places are making that discount everlasting. The WSJ reported that Starbucks plans to open 400 new takeout- or delivery-only shops within the subsequent three years.

All of that is taking place not as a result of the quick meals business is struggling and making an attempt to chop its prices, however for the actual reverse purpose. “It’s having a renaissance,” says Adam Chandler, writer of a guide in regards to the quick meals business referred to as Drive-Through Desires.

McDonald’s is a specific standout; it reported gross sales development of greater than 10 p.c in 2022, recording a revenue of $6.1 billion, after rising costs by about 10 p.c in 2022, too. Price not appears to discourage prospects. As one analyst remarked in the course of the firm’s Q1 2023 earnings name, quick meals supply is booming although it’s costlier, diluting the worth proposition of an inexpensive meal. “Shockingly, in plenty of locations, persons are prepared to pay double what they’d pay to have a field of doughnuts and a big fries arrive to them 20 to half-hour later, barely soggy,” Chandler says.

“The comfort driver has turn out to be increasingly essential because the years have handed,” says Hudson Riehle, senior vice chairman of analysis on the Nationwide Restaurant Affiliation. “Even earlier than the pandemic, about 61 p.c of quick meals gross sales have been off-premise.” After reaching a excessive of virtually 90 p.c throughout lockdowns, they’re now nonetheless hovering round 75 p.c, based on Riehle.

If quick meals eating places turn out to be much less of a spot to eat and hang around and extra of a pit cease — a transitory house to select up or hand off meals — it additionally affords chains the chance to dramatically minimize one of many business’s most vexing working prices: paying human workers. “One other a part of this complete factor is wrapped up in labor, and the way they’ll maximize income by automating plenty of this,” Chandler says.

The business has tried to repair the present labor scarcity by elevating wages, however the scarcity has doggedly endured, with a current Nationwide Restaurant Affiliation survey displaying that six in 10 restaurant operators say they’re understaffed. The truth that the scarcity persists reveals that the pay will increase aren’t fairly the appetizing draw eating places hoped they’d be for staff, who could really feel burned out by the grueling, usually harmful business. The push for automation in eating places additionally comes because the business is preventing tooth and nail to reverse a new California regulation establishing a governmental physique to lift the minimal wage for quick meals staff.

The way forward for quick meals, as idealized by eating places, entails robots taking orders, cooking them, and delivering them proper to your automobile.

“You’re seeing plenty of large development within the chains, and so they’re taking this second to recalibrate and determine their subsequent methods,” Chandler says.

Eating places’ no-dining-room experiments coincide with the beefing-up of drive-thrus, which turned extra standard post-pandemic and in addition face important bottlenecks (see: lengthy traces overflowing onto primary roads). Taco Bell’s new idea restaurant has 4 drive-thru lanes the place meals is delivered on to the client’s automobile by way of a vertical raise. (There isn’t any eating room.) The demand for drive-thru has been such a development space for quick meals that even full-service eating places are including them.

Shoppers have a reasonably quick quantity of endurance for his or her quick meals order to be prepared. In line with a 2020 Deloitte report, 75 p.c of shoppers say ready as much as half-hour for his or her meals supply is cheap. For quick meals, 42 p.c of diners stated they anticipated their orders in 5 minutes or much less. Quick meals chains are utilizing a number of recent tech to hurry up orders and supply occasions: Voice bots to enhance the accuracy and effectivity of drive-thru orders; apps and in-store kiosks so prospects can place their orders with out ever having to work together with a human. They’re even utilizing location knowledge that lets workers know when a buyer is nearing the shop to select up their meals, and experimenting with containers and packaging to make sure that meals doesn’t get soggy throughout supply.

“If the pandemic did one factor, it was to show the everyday American restaurant patron methods to use digital ordering,” Riehle says. “The crucial significance of digital ordering can’t be overstated.”

Whereas quick meals eating places would possibly wish to totally automate, it’ll take some convincing and acclimation. Prospects are just a little cautious of it — based on a survey by model technique agency Large Pink Rooster, nearly a 3rd say that they don’t wish to see robots making ready their meals. It’s a departure from how folks considered quick meals when it first appeared on the scene within the early twentieth century. In a time earlier than a uniform well being code, the mechanization and consistency of quick meals was a consolation, says Chandler. The attract of White Fort — the primary quick meals chain within the US, having opened in 1921 — was that it “standardized the look of the eating places” and confirmed folks a “very clear, well-lit place to dine.”

“It’s humorous, as a result of these days — within the final 15 or 20 years — the thought of getting a spot look precisely the identical whenever you go in is sort of dystopian,” he says.

However no matter discomfort diners could really feel a couple of robotic fry cook dinner, automating the quick meals expertise to be an excellent sooner, to-go expertise is the big-dollar-sign future for the business — working a quick meals restaurant, particularly in case you’re only a franchisee, is a reasonably small-margin enterprise. Whereas eating in has made a comeback because the lockdowns, it’s nonetheless not again at pre-pandemic ranges. It’s unclear if it’s going to ever totally get well — or if we’ve merely entered a brand new period of having fun with quick meals outdoors of the restaurant. Simply as automobile tradition gave rise to the quick meals expertise we’ve recognized for the previous half-century, the smartphone is now ushering it into its subsequent iteration, for a extra atomized world the place commuters and highway trippers don’t need to pause in any respect for his or her meals.

One thing stands to be misplaced with the shrinking of eating rooms and growth of drive-thrus, says Chandler. The quick meals joint usually serves as a “third place,” a stand-in for the shortage of different public areas and establishments providing a impartial place to hang around. “After I was reporting [for my book], I might go to small cities within the Plains states,” he says, “and I might see the native Burger King is the place a bunch of outdated timers meet each morning, have espresso and perhaps a sandwich, and hang around.”

“To see the playgrounds going away — to see the shops’ footprints decreasing in measurement, the place you see this huge emphasis on smaller or fewer eating rooms and extra drive-thru lanes, speaks to a motion away from these third locations,” Chandler says.


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